Varicose Veins Symptoms

Symptoms and risks associated with the condition vary considerably among individuals. Many people experience no symptoms or discomfort whatsoever, whereas others may suffer from considerable pain and skin discoloration.

Furthermore, it is not uncommon for symptoms to be present for some time before varicose veins become visible. Typically, these symptoms may worsen after periods of prolonged standing or sitting.

Can varicose veins occur in areas of the body other than the legs?

Yes. Varicose veins can develop in the rectum; these are commonly called hemorrhoids or piles. They can also occur in other parts of the body such as the uterus (womb), vagina, pelvis, or esophagus, for example. Varicose veins in the esophagus are called esophageal varicies and are a potentially life-threatening complication of portal hypertension.

Common Symptoms

Most sufferers experience one or more of these symptoms:

  • dull ache or “heavy” feeling in the legs
  • throbbing sensation
  • leg muscle cramping
  • minor swelling, particularly in the lower legs and ankles
  • visibly enlarged veins
  • hyperpigmentation (brownish discoloration of the skin, particularly around the ankles)
  • localized itching
  • bleeding following a minor injury.

Diagnosing Varicose Veins

Physical examination by a physician is often sufficient to diagnose the condition.

Other common diagnostic procedures include taking a special type of x-ray, known as a venogram, and/or the use of a hand-held Doppler ultrasound to diagnose possible complications. Occasionally, an angiography of the legs may be used to rule out other disorders.

Duplex Ultrasound Imaging

In certain cases, the physician may refer the patient for a duplex ultrasound scan, which transmits the Doppler ultrasound findings to a computer. This type of ultrasound enables the radiologist to view an “action shot” of the blood vessels in the patient’s leg, and evaluate the direction of blood flow.

A duplex examination may be conducted to rule out other disorders of the legs. The major advantage of the duplex ultrasound is that it can pinpoint the exact location of the “leaking” valves.

Rare Disorders of the Large, Deep Veins

Complications may arise if vascular obstruction occurs as a result of increased valvular dysfunction or deterioration in circulatory activity in the deep venous system. Although rarely associated with varicose veins, if present these symptoms call for immediate medical attention.

Each of the following conditions also requires immediate attention by medical professionals.

Edema: Edema is a result of incomplete blood circulation, where excessive fluid builds up in the tissues. Swelling and soreness can occur throughout the body, or may be limited to specific parts of the body such as the legs and/or ankles.

Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT): DVT refers to a blood clot in a large vein. The blood clots may break away (embolize) and travel through the blood stream back to the heart where they most commonly become lodged in the lungs. Warning signs and symptoms of deep vein thrombosis include sudden, localized pain in the thigh, leg or lower parts of the body, swelling and/or redness of the legs, hardening of the skin, hyperpigmentation, ulcers or fever. Such symptoms may indicate the presence of blood clots that require urgent medical attention.

Risk factors include immobilization (such as on long plane or car trips), pregnancy and the use of contraceptive pills containing estrogen.

Thrombophlebitis: Thrombophlebitis is the inflammation of a blood vessel and is associated with the formation of blood clots. This may occur, for example, as a result of local irritation or infection in or near a vein, such as the site where an IV line has been inserted.

Phlebitis: Phlebitis is a chronic inflammation of the vein.

Stasis Dermatitis: Stasis dermatitis refers to changes in the skin caused by fluid build-up under the surface of the skin. Changes may include scaly, itchy skin, hyperpigmentation, sores and ulcers.

Pulmonary Embolism: A pulmonary embolism is an obstruction of a blood vessel in the lungs, usually due to a blood clot that has migrated there. Most cases of pulmonary embolism are a result of deep vein thrombosis.

Resources

ALtruis Biomedical Network. (2002). Cardiovascular system.

Feied, C.