Kidney Stones Causes

Diet or underlying medical conditions such as gout or hyperthyroidism are common causes of kidney stones. Men are three times as likely to develop kidney stones as women. Age also plays a role: Peak incidence rates for kidney stone formation are between thirty and sixty years of age. Despite these identified kidney stone causes, however, many cases have no obvious cause.

Ethnically, Caucasians are more prone to calculi than African Americans. A family history of stone formation also increases risk levels. Living in a warm climate, especially near large bodies of water, also appears to increase the risk.

Diet

Evidence suggests that eating certain types of food increases the chances of kidney stones for people already at risk of developing calculi. Diets high in meats may increase uric acid levels in the body. If the acid cannot be completely dissolved in urine, uric acid stones may form.

Oxalate, formed from oxalic acid, combines with calcium to produce kidney stones. Eating rhubarb, spinach, cocoa, pepper, nuts or tea can result in excess oxalate in people who have a high level of risk. Diet does not appear to be a high risk for people with no other risk factors.

Drinking fluids may help defend against calculus formation. Dehydration and fluid loss through diarrhea have been linked to the development of kidney stones.

Vitamin D Overdose

Overdoses of vitamin D can occur due to metabolic disorders, or overuse of vitamin supplements. Excess vitamin D results in unusually high amounts of calcium oxalate in the system, one of the causes of calcium oxylate kidney stones. Vomiting, nausea, and muscle weakness are symptoms of vitamin D overdose (also known as vitamin D intoxication).

Mineral Imbalances